Weight Sensor - Study

Weight Sensor - Study

The science of genes and obesity

So far, several genes have been identified that affect weight and determine which diet will be most effective for an individual.

We have examine each of those genes in your analysis. Our method examines specific regions of genes, called SNPs, for traits that determine your tendency to obesity and the best weight loss strategy.



Summary of the science

This genetic analysis is supported by unusually strong scientific evidence. The genes have already been examined in numerous scientific studies such as more than 7500 studies on the PPARG gene, 167 studies on the FABP2 gene, 6897 studies on the ADRB2 gene and 493 studies on FTO. This genetic weight loss program is based on the 53 most important studies examining the effect of genes on weight loss and nutrition. This genetic test analysed 8 genetic variations that have different effects on the body and is one of the most comprehensive genetic tests of this kind worldwide. As there are 53 different scientific studies involved in this program, this short review focuses on the most important claims only:

  • Genetic polymorphisms cause people to react in different ways to the fat and the carbohydrates they eat. It is helpful to take in levels of fat and carbohydrates that work best with your genetic traits.
  • People following a weight loss program adapted to their genetic profile experience 2.5 times more success.
  • Genetic polymorphisms influence how the body responds to exercise for weight loss.
  • Genetic differences influence how the body reacts to calorie reduction for losing weight.

The program detects the genetic tendencies based on genetic analysis, adjusts the calorie distribution accordingly, and sets the focus on the strategies that yield better results. More sport or less calories? The aim of this section is to provide evidence for each of these statements, and to set the scientific basis of this program.

Statement 1

People react differently to the fat content of their diet, and their body weight is also differently influenced. The adjustment of the fat content in the diet may have a positive impact.

A very interesting example is the study conducted by the research group (Robitaille et al, Clin Genet. 63: 109-116, 2003), which determined that from the 720 subjects only those with a less favorable variant of the gene PPARG (Pro13Ala) gained weight while having a particularly high fat diet. A genetic effect confirmed by the independent research group (Memisoglu et al, Human Molecular Genetics. 13: 2923-2929, 2001) in a separate study. The body's response to a high-fat or low-fat diet can be predicted through the knowledge of this genetic defect.

Publications

  • http://www.jbc.org/content/276/43/39679.long J Biol Chem. 2001 Oct 26;276(43):39679-84. Epub 2001 Aug 3. The polymorphism at codon 54 of the FABP2 gene increases fat absorption in human intestinal explants. Levy E, Ménard D, Delvin E, Stan S, Mitchell G, Lambert M, Ziv E, Feoli-Fonseca JC, Seidman E.
  • http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/90/6/1483.long Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Dec;90(6):1483-8. Epub 2009 Oct 14. The FTO gene rs9939609 obesity-risk allele and loss of control over eating. Tanofsky-Kraff M, Han JC, Anandalingam K, Shomaker LB, Columbo KM, Wolkoff LE, Kozlosky M, Elliott C, Ranzenhofer LM, Roza CA, Yanovski SZ, Yanovski JA.
  • http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/90/5/1418.long Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Nov;90(5):1418-25. Epub 2009 Sep 2. Fat and carbohydrate intake modify the association between genetic variation in the FTO genotype and obesity. Sonestedt E, Roos C, Gullberg B, Ericson U, Wirfält E, Orho-Melander M.
  • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=19901143 Arch Intern Med. 2009 Nov 9;169(20):1897-906. APOA2, dietary fat, and body mass index: replication of a gene-diet interaction in 3 independent populations. Corella D, Peloso G, Arnett DK, Demissie S, Cupples LA, Tucker K, Lai CQ, Parnell LD, Coltell O, Lee YC, Ordovas JM.
  • http://atvb.ahajournals.org/content/18/10/1606.long Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 1998 Oct;18(10):1606-10. Postprandial lipemic response is modified by the polymorphism at codon 54 of the fatty acid-binding protein 2 gene. Agren JJ, Valve R, Vidgren H, Laakso M, Uusitupa M.
  • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=17378725 Clin Chem Lab Med. 2007;45(3):316-20. Polymorphisms in the APOA1/C3/A4/A5 gene cluster and cholesterol responsiveness to dietary change. Hubacek JA, Bohuslavova R, Skodova Z, Pitha J, Bobkova D, Poledne R.
  • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=13630956 Clin Genet. 2003 Feb;63(2):109-16. The PPAR-gamma P13A polymorphism modulates the relationship between dietary fat intake and components of the metabolic syndrome: results from the Québec Family Study. Robitaille J, Després JP, Pérusse L, Vohl MC.
  • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=21179003 Int J Obes (Lond). 2011 Aug;35(8):1041-9. doi: 10.1038/ijo.2010.263. Epub 2010 Dec 21. Association between fat intake, physical activity and mortality depending on genetic variation in FTO. Sonestedt E, Gullberg B, Ericson U, Wirfält E, Hedblad B, Orho-Melander M.
  • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=20975728 Int J Obes (Lond). 2011 May;35(5):666-75. Epub 2010 Oct 26. Association between the APOA2 promoter polymorphism and body weight in Mediterranean and Asian populations: replication of a gene-saturated fat interaction. Corella D, Tai ES, Sorlí JV, Chew SK, Coltell O, Sotos-Prieto M, García-Rios A, Estruch R, Ordovas JM.
  • http://www.jlr.org/content/41/13/2002.long J Lipid Res. 2000 Dec;41(13):2002-8. Effects of an Ala54Thr polymorphism in the intestinal fatty acidbinding protein on responses to dietary fat in humans. Pratley RE, Baier L, Pan DA, Salbe AD, Storlien L, Ravussin E, Bogardus C.
  • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=17211608 J Mol Med (Berl). 2007 Feb;85(2):119-28. Epub 2007 Jan 9. APOA5 gene variation modulates the effects of dietary fat intake on body mass index and obesity risk in the Framingham Heart Study. Corella D, Lai CQ, Demissie S, Cupples LA, Manning AK, Tucker KL, Ordovas JM.
  • http://jn.nutrition.org/content/139/13/2301.long J Nutr. 2009 Dec;139(13):2301-8. Epub 2009 Oct 14. Apolipoprotein A5 polymorphisms interact with total dietary fat intake in association with markers of metabolic syndrome in Puerto Rican older adults. Mattei J, Demissie S, Tucker KL, Ordovas JM.
  • http://jn.nutrition.org/content/141/13/2219.long J Nutr. 2011 Dec;141(13):2219-25. Epub 2011 Nov 2. A High Intake of Saturated Fatty Acids Strengthens the Association between the Fat Mass and Obesity-Associated Gene and BMI. Corella D, Arnett DK, Tucker KL, Kabagambe EK, Tsai M, Parnell LD, Lai CQ, Lee YC, Warodomwichit D, Hopkins PN, Ordovas JM.
  • http://jn.nutrition.org/content/141/3/380.long J Nutr. 2011 Mar;141(3):380-5. Epub 2011 Jan 5. APOA5 gene variation interacts with dietary fat intake to modulate obesity and circulating triglycerides in a Mediterranean population. Sánchez-Moreno C, Ordovás JM, Smith CE, Baraza JC, Lee YC, Garaulet M.
  • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=16311100 Metabolism. 2005 Dec;54(13):1652-8. Comparison of the acute response to meals enriched with cis- or trans-fatty acids on glucose and lipids in overweight individuals with differing FABP2 genotypes. Lefevre M, Lovejoy JC, Smith SR, Delany JP, Champagne C, Most MM, Denkins Y, de Jonge L, Rood J, Bray GA.
  • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=14981327 Obes Res. 2004 Feb;13(2):340-5.Intestinal FABP2 A54T polymorphism: association with insulin resistance and obesity in women. Albala C, Santos JL, Cifuentes M, Villarroel AC, Lera L, Liberman C, Angel B, Pérez-Bravo F.

Statement 2

People react differently to the carbohydrate content in food. An adaptation of the carbohydrate content makes sense.

A study in the "Journal of Nutrition" has shown that people with the Gln27Glu polymorphism in the gene ADRB2 have significantly higher tendency to become overweight (OR: 2.56) when they receive more than 49% of daily calories from carbohydrates.

Publications

  • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/13888635 J Nutr. 2003 Aug;133(8):2549-54. Obesity risk is associated with carbohydrate intake in women carrying the Gln27Glu beta2-adrenoceptor polymorphism. Martínez JA, Corbalán MS, Sánchez-Villegas A, Forga L, Marti A, Martínez-González MA.

Statement 3

Genes influence a particular weight loss program with up to 2.5 times better or worse success.

A study from (Lindi et al., Diabetes 51: 2581-2586, 2002) came to the conclusion that people who followed a light three-year diet and exercise program loose about 2.5 times more weight if they have the favorable variant of a gene than people with the unfavorable variant (on average, 8.3 kg compared to 3.4 kg). However, the favorable variant had one drawback: one year after the study, the body weight of the subjects was measured again, showing that the people with the favorable variant had gained significantly more weight than the group with the really unfavorable variant. Thus, the favorable variant makes sports and diet effective, but unfortunately, the yo-yo effect is stronger.

Publications

  • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=13145174 Diabetes. 2002 Aug;51(8):2581-6. Association of the Pro13Ala polymorphism in the PPAR-gamma2 gene with 3-year incidence of type 2 diabetes and body weight change in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study. Lindi VI, Uusitupa MI, Lindström J, Louheranta A, Eriksson JG, Valle TT, Hämäläinen H, Ilanne-Parikka P, Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi S, Laakso M, Tuomilehto J; Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study.

Statement 4

Genetic polymorphisms affect how the body responds to sport for losing weight.

The effectiveness of sport for losing weight is strongly influenced by the genes. The study (Diabetes Obes Metab. 2002 Nov;4(6):428-30.) is one of the many studies showing that people with a particular gene variant in the ADRB2 gene had a significant genetic tendency to be overweight, but only if they led an inactive lifestyle. If these people practice sport, the genetic defect had no influence on their tendency to be overweight. The effect of the gene defect could therefore be annulled by a lifestyle change. An independent study analysing the same gene (Diabetes Care. 1997 Dec;20(13):1887-90.) shows that people with the less favourable variant of the gene loose significantly less weight through sport than the persons with the favourable variant, even if they make as much effort as the ones from the control group. So for them sport is not the best weight-loss strategy. Every gym employee is familiar with these significant differences in weight-loss success. These genetic effects was confirmed by many other studies (Eur J Intern Med. 2007 Dec;18(8):587-92, Obes Res. 2004 May;13(5):807-15., Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2003 Sep;27(9):1028-36).

Publications

  • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=16741364 Obesity (Silver Spring). 2006 Apr;14(4):529-644. The human obesity gene map: the 2005 update. Rankinen T, Zuberi A, Chagnon YC, Weisnagel SJ, Argyropoulos G, Walts B, Pérusse L, Bouchard C.
  • http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/90/5/1418.long Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Nov;90(5):1418-25. Epub 2009 Sep 2. Fat and carbohydrate intake modify the association between genetic variation in the FTO genotype and obesity. Sonestedt E, Roos C, Gullberg B, Ericson U, Wirfält E, Orho-Melander M.
  • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=20650268 Clin Chim Acta. 2010 Nov 11;411(21-22):1716-22. Epub 2010 Jul 25. Effects of common FTO gene variants associated with BMI on dietary intake and physical activity in Koreans. Lee HJ, Kim IK, Kang JH, Ahn Y, Han BG, Lee JY, Song J.
  • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=9405913 Diabetes Care. 1997 Dec;20(13):1887-90. Effects of Trp64Arg mutation in the beta 3-adrenergic receptor gene on weight loss, body fat distribution, glycemic control, and insulin resistance in obese type 2 diabetic patients. Sakane N, Yoshida T, Umekawa T, Kogure A, Takakura Y, Kondo M.
  • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=13406043 Diabetes Obes Metab. 2002 Nov;4(6):428-30. TRP64ARG polymorphism of the beta 3-adrenergic receptor gene and obesity risk: effect modification by a sedentary lifestyle. Marti A, Corbalán MS, Martínez-Gonzalez MA, Martinez JA.
  • http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/51/8/2581.long Diabetes. 2002 Aug;51(8):2581-6. Association of the Pro13Ala polymorphism in the PPAR-gamma2 gene with 3-year incidence of type 2 diabetes and body weight change in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study. Lindi VI, Uusitupa MI, Lindström J, Louheranta A, Eriksson JG, Valle TT, Hämäläinen H, Ilanne-Parikka P, Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi S, Laakso M, Tuomilehto J; Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study.
  • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=15986237 Diabetologia. 2005 Aug;48(8):1503-9. Epub 2005 Jun 29. Influence of Pro13Ala peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma2 polymorphism on glucose response to exercise training in type 2 diabetes. Adamo KB, Sigal RJ, Williams K, Kenny G, Prud'homme D, Tesson F.
  • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=18054709 Eur J Intern Med. 2007 Dec;18(8):587-92. Epub 2007 Sep 10. Influence of the Trp64Arg polymorphism in the beta 3 adrenoreceptor gene on insulin resistance, adipocytokine response, and weight loss secondary to lifestyle modification in obese patients. de Luis DA, Gonzalez Sagrado M, Aller R, Izaola O, Conde R.
  • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=15778927 Horm Metab Res. 2005 Feb;37(2):99-105. Influence of the PPARgamma2 Pro13Ala and ACE I/D polymorphisms on insulin sensitivity and training effects in healthy offspring of type 2 diabetic subjects. Østergård T, Ek J, Hamid Y, Saltin B, Pedersen OB, Hansen T, Schmitz O.
  • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=21179003 Int J Obes (Lond). 2011 Aug;35(8):1041-9. doi: 10.1038/ijo.2010.263. Epub 2010 Dec 21. Association between fat intake, physical activity and mortality depending on genetic variation in FTO. Sonestedt E, Gullberg B, Ericson U, Wirfält E, Hedblad B, Orho-Melander M.
  • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=13917707 Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2003 Sep;27(9):1028-36. Difficulty in losing weight by behavioral intervention for women with Trp64Arg polymorphism of the beta3-adrenergic receptor gene. Shiwaku K, Nogi A, Anuurad E, Kitajima K, Enkhmaa B, Shimono K, Yamane Y.
  • http://jcem.endojournals.org/content/83/7/2441.long J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1998 Jul;83(7):2441-4.Meta-analysis of the association of Trp64Arg polymorphism of beta 3-adrenergic receptor gene with body mass index. Fujisawa T, Ikegami H, Kawaguchi Y, Ogihara T.
  • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=11743057 Obes Res. 2001 Dec;9(13):741-5. Association of BMI with the beta3-adrenergic receptor gene polymorphism in Japanese: meta-analysis. Kurokawa N, Nakai K, Kameo S, Liu ZM, Satoh H.
  • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=15166301 Obes Res. 2004 May;13(5):807-15. Association between body fat response to exercise training and multilocus ADR genotypes. Phares DA, Halverstadt AA, Shuldiner AR, Ferrell RE, Douglass LW, Ryan AS, Goldberg AP, Hagberg JM.

Statement 5

Genes influence the success of a calorie reduction for losing weight. The proportion of carbohydrates and fat in the diet can be customized depending on genetic predisposition. Fat sensitive individuals therefore benefit from a low-fat diet while carbohydrate sensitive persons will benefit more from a low-carb diet.

Therefore, these two genetic tendencies allow drawing conclusions regarding who is sensitive to the amount of carbohydrates and fats in the diet. Thus, if a person is less sensitive to the amount of fat in food, this person shows a tendency to become overweight only when the carbohydrate content is about 49%, according to the publications previously mentioned, and it can be concluded that a higher fat and lower carbohydrate diet will have a positive impact on body weight. A person with the right polymorphisms is not gaining weight with a diet containing more fat and less carbohydrates.

Publications

  • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=12145174 Diabetes. 2002 Aug;51(8):2581-6. Association of the Pro12Ala polymorphism in the PPAR-gamma2 gene with 3-year incidence of type 2 diabetes and body weight change in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study. Lindi VI, Uusitupa MI, Lindström J, Louheranta A, Eriksson JG, Valle TT, Hämäläinen H, Ilanne-Parikka P, Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi S, Laakso M, Tuomilehto J; Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study.

Your genes do not change and the traits and variations are the same from your birth to the end of your life. Therefore, you do not need to retest your genes as you will always get the same results. Genetic analyses are technically very complex and there is a small chance that a genetic variant may have been missed. To prevent this, we have integrated several quality assurance measures in our processes which ensure the accuracy of our diagnosis. We do everything possible to ensure that the results of your analysis are accurate.

However, you should be aware that there is the (unlikely) possibility that yet unidentified genes have an effect on weight loss and were thus missed by this analysis. Therefore keep our new products in mind in order to stay informed about newly discovered risk genes.